Outside of the Aboriginal peoples in “Canada”, the Vikings appear to have had the first permanent settlements but they died out or retreated to Greenland or Iceland. The Portuguese had summer fishing stations but the French made permanent sttlements in Nova Scotia where they were dying of rickets/scurvy until the Aboriginals showed them a winter recipe of boiled bark from the appropriate trees and plants. These settlements in Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and northern Maine became to be called Acadia. Bluebottle referred to the 7 Years War in which Acadia was lost to Britain in 1713. Because many Acadians refused to make an oath of allegiance to Britain, the English started an expulsion. They rounded up the French speaking people and started deporting them down the coast of the 13 colonies and later to Britain and France. Many exportees made their way to Louisiana and the bayou country where Acadians became ‘Cajuns. For a fictional account of two lovers separated in Le Grand Derangement, see Henry Wadsorth Longfellow’s poem “Evangeline”.